G. What is the root of crowfoot [listed by T.]? Said R. Judah, [59a] “The root of succory (Cashdan).”
H. Said R. Judah, “Any person who eats three tiqlas of asafoetida on an empty stomach will shed his skin (Cashdan).” Said R. Abbahu, “It once happened to me that I ate one tiqla of asafoetida and had I not immersed in water I would have shed my skin. So I fulfilled for myself the verse, `[For the protection of wisdom is like the protection of money; and the advantage of knowledge is that] wisdom preserves the life of him who has it' (Qoh. 7:12).”
I. Said R. Joseph, “Any person who eats sixteen eggs, forty nuts, and seven caperberries, and who drinks a quarter [log] of honey during the season of Tammuz [i.e., the summer] on an empty stomach — he will have a heart attack [lit.: snaps his heart strings asunder (Cashdan)].”
J. A certain young deer whose hind legs had been broken was brought before the Exilarch [for a ruling]. Rab inspected it at the nexus of the sinews and declared it valid. He planned to eat it barbecued. Said to him Samuel, “Does not the master suspect it might have been bitten [by a snake and the poison will pose a danger to you if it is not cooked properly]?” He said to him, “What is the procedure [I must follow to see if this is the case]? [He said to him,] “Let us put it into the oven [to cook]. For [if it has poison in it] it will become evident.” They put it in and it fell apart. Samuel recited concerning Rab, “No ill befalls the righteous, [but the wicked are filled with trouble]” (Prov. 12:21). And Rab Recited concerning Samuel, “[O Belteshazzar, chief of the magicians, because I know that the spirit of the holy gods is in you and that] no mystery is difficult for you, [here is the dream which I saw; tell me its interpretation]” (Dan. 4:9).
I.1 invokes a rule of Samuel and the text of Tosefta to elucidate to Mishnah. The text continues with related rules and precedents.
A. The tokens [by which we know whether or not animals are deemed clean or fit] of cattle and wild beasts have been stated by the Torah (cf. Lev. 11:3).
B. And the tokens of fowl have not been so stated.
C. But sages have ruled: “Any fowl that seizes is unclean. Any [fowl] that has an extra talon [the hallux] and a craw, and the skin of the stomach of which [can] be stripped off is clean.”
D. R. Eleazar b. Sadoq says, “Any bird that parts its toes evenly [two in front and two in back] is unclean” (Lev. 11:3).
A. And among locusts: Any that has (1) four legs, (2) four wings, and (3) jointed legs (Lev. 11:21), and (4) the wings of which cover the greater part of its body.
B. R. Yosé says, “And (5) the name of which is locust.”
C. And among fish: Any that has fins and scales.
D. R. Judah says, “Two scales and a single fin [are sufficient].”
E. And what are scales?
F. Those that are immovable.
G. And fins?
H. Those with which it swims [but not propelling itself on dry land with them].
A. Our rabbis taught on Tannaite authority: These are the tokens of cattle [by which we know whether or not animals are deemed fit] [M. Hul. 3:6A]: “Whatever parts the hoof and is cloven-footed and chews the cut among animals you may eat” (Lev. 11:3). Whatever chews the cud [we know] has no upper teeth [T. 3:20 A-B] and it is clean.
B. But is this the rule? For lo, [consider by way of counter example] the camel. For it chews the cud and has no upper teeth and is unclean! [The reason for this is] the camel has canines (Cashdan). But lo, [consider] the young camel that does not even have canines! And furthermore [consider as support for the rule that] the rock-badger and the hare chew the cud and they have upper teeth and they are unclean.
C. And moreover [why should this rule be stated at all]? Are teeth even mentioned in the Torah [as a sign of a clean or unclean animal]?
D. Rather here is what you should say: Any animal that does not have upper teeth, we know that it chews the cud and it has split hooves and is clean.
E. But why not just inspect the hooves? [What is the value of this generalization?] The case in question may be one where the hooves were cut up. And this accords with the view of R. Hisda. For said R. Hisda, “If he was walking in the wilderness and came across an animal whose hooves were cut up [so that he could not determine if they were split], he should inspect its mouth. If it does not have upper teeth, we know that it [chews the cud and it has split hooves and] is clean. And if not, then we know it is unclean.”
F. [This rule applies] as long as he is able to identify a camel [since that is an exception to the rule]. But a camel has canines! [We should say then,] as long as he is able to identify a young camel [that has no canines and is unclean].
G. Is there any other kind [of animal] like the young camel [with no upper teeth that is unclean]? No. You cannot have concluded that. For the house of R. Ishmael taught: “[Nevertheless among those that chew the cud or part the hoof, you shall not eat these:] The camel, because it chews the cud [but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you]” (Lev. 11:4). He who rules over the world knows that the only [kind of animal] that chews its cud and is unclean is the camel. Therefore scripture singles it out [with the pronoun,] “it.”
H. And said R. Hisda, “If he was walking in the wilderness and came across an animal whose mouth was mangled, he should inspect its hooves. If it has split hooves, we know that it is clean. If it does not, we know that it is unclean.”
I. [This rule applies] as long as he is able to identify a swine [since that is an exception to the rule]. Do you not state that there is the swine [that is an exception to the rule]? Are there not other kinds that are like the swine? No. You cannot have concluded that. For the house of R. Ishmael taught: “And the swine, because it parts the hoof and is cloven-footed [but does not chew the cud, is unclean to you]” (Lev. 11:7). He who rules over the world knows that the only [kind of animal] that parts the hoof and is unclean is the swine. Therefore scripture singles it out [with the pronoun,] “it.”
J. And said R. Hisda, “If he was walking in the wilderness and came across an animal whose mouth was mangled, and whose hooves were cut up, he should inspect its flesh [under its tail]. If it [has a pattern that is] criss-cross, we know that it is clean. If not, we know that it is unclean.”
K. [This rule applies] as long as he is able to identify the wild ass. Do you not state that there is the wild ass [that is an exception to the rule]? Are there not other kinds that are like the wild ass? We have a tradition that there are not.
L. And where does he inspect [the flesh]? Said Abayye, and some say, R. Hisda, “[In the hind quarter] under the tail.”
A. The tokens [by which we know whether or not animals are deemed clean or fit] of cattle and wild beasts [M. 3:6 A]. Our Rabbis taught on Tannaite authority: What are the tokens [by which we know whether an animal is] a wild beast? [Any that has horns and [pointed] hooves] [T. 3:21 A-B]. Are not the wild beasts subsumed in the [same] rules as cattle with regard to the tokens [that signify whether they are clean]?
B. Said R. Zira, [59b] “[We stipulate separate rules for wild beasts] so as to render it permissible to use their fats.” So here is what you should say [in the rule in T.]: What are the tokens [by which we know whether an animal is] a wild beast, whose fats are permissible? Any that has horns and [pointed] hooves.
C. R. Dosa says, “If it has horns you do not have to look for its [pointed] hooves. If it has [pointed] hooves, you still need to look for its horns.”
D. And the antelope, even though it has only one horn [its fat] is permitted.
E. Is this a fixed rule [that the fats from an animal with horns and pointed hooves is permitted]? Behold the goat has horns and [pointed] hooves and its fats are forbidden. You must have layered [horns on the animal to be a valid sign that the fats are permitted]. But behold an ox has layered [horns] and it fats are forbidden. You must have notched [horns]. But behold the goat has notched [horns] and its fats are forbidden. You must have branched [horns, i.e., antlers]. But behold the deer does not have branched [horns] and its fats are permitted. [Cashdan: this may refer to the pronghorn antelope.] You must have pointed [horns, alt.: cylindrical].
F. Therefore where [the animal has] branched [horns] there is not the slightest doubt [that it is a wild beast]. Where [the animal] does not have branched [horns], you must have [horns that are] layered, pointed and notched. And the notches must intersect with one another.
G. And this Karkuz goat [possibly: gazelle] is a case of doubt. [Rashi: It has the signs of a wild beast but it is called a “goat.”] A certain Karkuz goat was [slaughtered] in the house of the Exilarch. A basket full of fat was removed from it. R. Ahai prohibited [its use]. R. Samuel the son of R. Abbahu ate from it. He recited about himself, “From the fruit of his mouth a man is satisfied; [he is satisfied by the yield of his lips]” (Prov. 18:20). [Based on the ruling he learned, he had a good meal.]
H. They sent forth [the ruling]: The law follows in accord with the view of Samuel the son of R. Abbahu. But take care [to account for the view of] R. Ahai. For he lights up the eyes [of the Jews living in] the exile.
A. And the antelope, even though it has only one horn [its fat] is permitted [II.1 D above]. Said R. Judah, “The antelope is [called] the deer in Be Ilai. The tiger is [called] the lion in Be Ilai.”
B. Said R. Kahana, “There were nine cubits between the ears of the lion of Be Ilai.” Said R. Joseph, “The lion of Be Ilai was sixteen cubits long.”
C. Said Caesar to R. Joshua b. Hananiah, “Your God is like a lion. As it is stated, `The lion has roared; who will not fear? [The Lord God has spoken; who can but prophesy?]' (Amos 3:8).” What is exceptional about this? Any horseman can kill a lion. He [Joshua] said to him, “He is not like any lion. He is like the lion of Be Ilai.” He said to him, “You must show it to me.” He [Joshua] said to him, “You cannot see it. [That lion is too terrifying.]” He said to him, “Really! Show it to me!”
D. He [Joshua] prayed. It was uprooted from its place [and started to be transported toward them]. When it was four hundred parsangs away it gave out a single roar. All of the pregnant women of Rome miscarried [from fright] and all the walls fell down [from the vibrations]. When it was three hundred parsangs away it gave out another roar. All of the teeth of the people [of Rome] fell out [of their mouths from the impact of the sound]. And he [Caesar] himself fell from his throne to the ground. He said to him [Joshua], “I beg you. Pray that it go back to its place.” He prayed and it went back to its place.